Each type and instance of communication will have a specific context. Communication context will, for example, be different for a television broadcaster than for a door-to-door salesperson. A communications context can be thought of as the environment or human eco-system, in which communication takes place. Determining the context of a particular instance of communication involves considering the cultural, historical, psychological, social and physical factors at play.
The historical context involves the expectation of the speaker and the audience in situations that happen regularly or have happened in the past. If, for example, an individual does an annual sales presentation for a particular client there will, over time, evolve certain expectations about what will happen and how things will go. That does not mean that the same thing must happen every time, but the speaker should be aware of both their own historical expectations and that of the audience.
The psychological context refers to the mood and emotions of the audience, as well as the speaker to a lesser extent. How the audience is feeling will have an impact on how the speaker's messages will be received, and how they should be delivered. For example, if a speaker is making a presentation at a conference with several days of various speakers doing presentations, the psychology of the audience will be different in the morning of the first day than it will in the evening of the last day. The mood following dinner will be different than the mood right before dinner.
Cultural context is one of the most obvious factors of communication, but it is also one of the most important. Culture relates to the beliefs and values of a group. The way material is effectively presented to a group of teenage boys will be different from the way it is effectively presented to a group of elderly women. The best way to present information to a group of Wall Street stock brokers will be different than the best way to present that same information to a group of California surfers. It is always critically important that a speaker understand the cultural expectations of the audience.
Social context is a personal matter. It involves the relationship of the speaker and the audience and the expectations involved in that relationship. The way an individual communicates with his employer will be different from the way he communicates with a drinking buddy. The way a teacher makes a request to her students will be different from the way she communicates the request to her spouse.
There is a time and place for everything, and that is where physical context comes in. The physical context involves the actual location, the time of day, the lighting, noise level and related factors. A speaker at a political rally might shout, pound the podium and use inflammatory language to get an audience excited. At many political rallies, this type of behavior is expected. Doing the same thing with a small group of friends around a fireplace late at night would produce a very different reaction.
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