A disability often means loss of income and significant medical expenses. Fortunately, the IRS offers some helpful assistance to the disabled, including credits that are subtracted directly from the total tax liability. Employers and caregivers in the household can also earn credits for assisting the disabled.
Credit for the Disabled
The IRS allows you a tax credit if you have stopped working due to a permanent and total disability. The disability must have lasted, or be expected to last, at least 12 months; to claim the credit you also must have supporting records or doctor’s statements. There is no minimum age, as long as you received disability income during the year. If you are married, you must file a joint return to claim this credit. The base amount of the credit ranges from $3,750 to $7,500, depending on your age and filing status. You must complete IRS Schedule R to figure the amount of the credit.
Spouse and Dependent Care Credit
If you pay for the care of a disabled spouse or dependent, the IRS allows a tax credit of up to 35 percent of the total medical or caregiver expenses. The dependent child must be under age 13. The IRS also allows the credit for the care of someone who lived with you for more than half the year, but doesn’t otherwise qualify as a dependent. For both the child and dependent care credit and the credit for the disabled you must use Form 1040 or 1040A; you cannot claim the credits on a 1040EZ.
Earned Income Credit
Disabled taxpayers may also claim the earned income credit; there is no special qualification for the disability, but the EIC is available if you earned a limited amount of money from wages or a salary. The maximum earned income to qualify in 2012 was $13,980 for a single person with no dependent children, up to $50,270 for married, joint filers with three or more children. The IRS does not count Social Security disability or Supplemental Security Income toward earned income; however, benefits from employer-provided disability insurance are counted if you have not yet reached the policy's minimum retirement age.
Work Opportunity Tax Credit
If you are disabled but ready to join the work force, let potential employers know about a significant credit against salaries paid to any newly hired disabled employees. For the employer to claim the work opportunity tax credit, the employee must be using vocational rehabilitation services, drawing Supplemental Security Income or drawing VA disability. The credit maxes out at $2,400 for the first year of employment, an amount that the IRS doubles for the hiring of disabled veterans.
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